The city of Damavand is located 75 kilometers northeast of Tehran on the slopes of magnificent Mount Damavand with natural scenery of several orchards and a pleasant climate that makes it a desirable summer resort. Many springs of cold and hot mineral water around Damavand have therapeutic qualities. Damavand is a historical city.
Mount Damāvand (In Persian: دماوند) is a dormant volcano, With a high point of 5610.27 meters, Damavand is the highest mountain peak in Iran located almost in the center of Alborz mountain range. Damavand is higher than all west Asian and European mountain peaks. Damavand peak is situated in Larijan district, southwest of Amol and 69 kilometers northeast of Tehran.
What is peculiar about Damavand is its height, which clearly highlights this peak amidst an array of high peaks in the region and a permanent layer of snow, which remains unmelted on top of it all year long. The relative height of Damavand peak from the surface of the Plateau on which it has been erected, exceeds three thousand meters. The bottom side of the cone is about 20 to 23 kilometers in diameter. Its volcanic mouth is 400 meters in diameter, and is bounded by a frozen lake. The magnitude of the mountain is doubled since the diameter of the cone compared to its height is negligible. Structure – wise Damavand cone is Strato – volcanic From the geological point of view, though the Damavand cone belongs to a modern era, the volcanic activities which have formed the Damavand cone belong to the Holosen era and the lava discovered in the alluviums of the fourth era in Haraz river attest to the very fact that volcanic activities in this area are new. The slopes and skirts of this mountain are filled with volcanic lava and sulfur gases flow out of many volcanic mouths of this peak. The lava and other volcanic substances have been piled in layers on a sediment base composed of the stones belonging to the first and second eras.
The surface on which the volcanic mass has been placed is a corrosive one which crosses wrinkled stones and rocks. The waters flowing here have dug deep valleys which have been later on filled with a variety of volcanic substances.
Damavand mountain is the epicenter of an earthquake belt which stretches along Mazandaran province and many spas containing various substances flow out of it. Such spas include, Ask, Talkh Roud and Larijan. All springs flowing from Damavand mountain pour into Haraz river.
Damavand mountain contains about 70 volcanic mouths and one of them is filled with a thick sulfur crest producing a beautiful conical peak with a diameter of some 400 meters.
Stone sand, clay sand, clay and coal sediments form the bottom of this mountain and on the top of this layer limes belonging to the mid- Jurassic era are found. The wrinkles of this mountain range extend to east and west and the width of the range widens in a spot located between the Karaj – Chalus road and Haraz valley. This section of the mountain represents three ranges beginning from the Lar and Noor valleys.
The highest spots of Alborz mountain range are located here. The height of peaks in this mountain range are no less than 3500 meters and a few peaks come in heights of over 4000 meters. Because of the fertile soil and appropriate climatic situation in the skirts of Tochal mountain, 3933 meters high in the north of Tehran many people have opted to inhabit these regions hence developing many villages there including Polur, Ask, Reineh, Abe Garm – e – Larijan, Garang, Larestan, and Razan. The most suitable path to climb Damavand Mountain is through Razan valley from the northeast part or through the Tarikh village from the west and southwest.
Mount Damāvand has its own special place in Iranian mythology and folklore. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Aži Dahāka was chained within Mount Damāvand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a later version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhāk was also chained on some cave in mount Damāvand after being defeated by Kāva and Fereydun. Damāvand is also significant to the patriotic Iranian legend of Arash.
Damāvand was climbed by Iranians thousands of years ago, by shepherds and such.
Damavand is the symbol of Iranian resistance against the foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature.
In Persian mythology, the mountain is where Zahak The Dragon King is slain by the hero Fereydun. The mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnama.
Routes to the summit
There are at least 16 known routes to the summit which have differnt difficulties. Some of them are very dangerous and need rock climbing. The most popular route is the Southern Route which has step stamps and also a camp midway at el=4000m. The longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two whole days to reach the summit starting from downhill village of Nandal and a night stay at Takht-e-Fereydoun (el=4300m) two stories shelter. The western route is famouse for its sunset view and Simorgh shelter in this route at el=4100m is a newly constructed shelter and has two stories. There is a frozen waterfall (Abshaar-e-Yakhi) which has huge avalanches often.
Other name(s) Donbavand
Altitude (m) 5671
Longitude 52° 6′ E
Latitude 35° 56′ N
Range/Region Middle Alborz
Nearest major town Larijan
Distance from Tehran (km) 66
Adjacent peak(s) Vararoo , Sesang , Golezard , Mianrood